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The Small Business Administration (SBA) has seemingly slipped a noteworthy change into a technical correction published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2018.  Indeed, this “technical correction” actually appears to be an attempt to overturn the impact of a decision that the Office of Hearing and Appeals (OHA) issued in January 2018 – In The Matter of: Analytic Strategies, Inc., No. VET-268 – which held that under SBA’s recertification rules, a SDVOSB maintains its size and socio-economic status for the life of the multiple-award contract unless a contracting officer requests recertification in connection with a specific task order.

As discussed in more detail below, this change creates a degree of uncertainty with respect to a concern’s ability to receive task/delivery orders on a set-aside basis following a recertification of size or status on a contract.

The Recertification Requirement on Set-Asides

When a contract is awarded on a set-aside basis, the contractor is required to recertify as to its size and/or socioeconomic status within thirty days of contract novation, merger, or acquisition.  In other words, following one of the aforementioned events, the contractor must confirm that it is still small or retains the socioeconomic status it claimed for award, or notify the procuring agency that it is other than small or no longer qualifies for the chosen socioeconomic status.  The recertification requirements are generally similar regardless of the program.  See 13 C.F.R. § 121.404(g) (size recert requirement); 13 C.F.R. § 125.18(e)(1) (Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB) recert requirement); 13 C.F.R. § 126.601(h)(1) (Historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUBZones) recert requirement); 13 C.F.R. § 127.503(h)(1) (Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB)/ Economically Disadvantaged Women-Owned Small Businesses (EDWOSB) recert requirement).

The Impact of a Recertification on a Set-Aside Contract

If a contractor has to recertify as to its size or socioeconomic status, it generally has been understood that the following occurred:

  • For contracts awarded on a set-aside basis, the contractor can continue to perform and the agency can exercise options, BUT, from that point forward, the agency cannot count the performance towards the agency’s small business and/or relevant status goals.

For multiple award contracts awarded on a set-aside basis:

  1. The contractor can continue to perform existing orders and the agency can continue to exercise options with respect to those orders, and
  2. The contractor can receive new set-aside orders against the contract so long as the contracting officer does not request a new size or status certification in connection with that specific order.

BUT, again, from that point forward, the agency cannot count performance on already-awarded or newly-awarded contracts towards the agency’s small business and/or relevant status goals.

The old version of the SDVOSB recertification requirement states:

(1) A concern that represents itself and qualifies as an SDVO SBC at the time of initial offer (or other formal response to a solicitation), which includes price, including a Multiple Award Contract, is considered an SDVO SBC throughout the life of that contract. This means that if an SDVO SBC is qualified at the time of initial offer for a Multiple Award Contract, then it will be considered an SDVO SBC for each order issued against the contract, unless a contracting officer requests a new SDVO SBC certification in connection with a specific order. Where a concern later fails to qualify as an SDVO SBC, the procuring agency may exercise options and still count the award as an award to an SDVO SBC. However, the following exceptions apply:

  1. Where an SDVO contract is novated to another business concern, the concern that will continue performance on the contract must certify its status as an SDVO SBC to the procuring agency, or inform the procuring agency that it does not qualify as an SDVO SBC, within 30 days of the novation approval. If the concern is not an SDVO SBC, the agency can no longer count the options or orders issued pursuant to the contract, from that point forward, towards its SDVO goals.
  2. Where a concern that is performing an SDVO SBC contract acquires, is acquired by, or merges with another concern and contract novation is not required, the concern must, within 30 days of the transaction becoming final, recertify its SDVO SBC status to the procuring agency, or inform the procuring agency that it no longer qualifies as an SDVO SBC. If the contractor is not an SDVO SBC, the agency can no longer count the options or orders issued pursuant to the contract, from that point forward, towards its SDVO goals. The agency and the contractor must immediately revise all applicable Federal contract databases to reflect the new status.

13 CFR § 125.18(e)(1).

It should be noted, however, that if, following a recertification as other than small or ineligible for the relevant socioeconomic status, a particular contract requires off-ramping or termination, or renders a holder ineligible to compete on future set aside task orders, those opportunity-specific provisions will apply.

This scheme historically has allowed a degree of certainty as to a potential work stream under a multiple award contract, which impacts valuation of small businesses.

SBA Took the Opposite Position In Analytic

In a recent case regarding a task order competition under a One Acquisition Solution for Integrated Services (OASIS) contract, SBA articulated a different position regarding the impact of a SDVOSB recertification.

Specifically, in April 2014, GSA awarded Analytic Strategies, Inc. (Analytic) an OASIS Small Business (SB) Pool I contract.  As part of its proposal submitted in October 2013, Analytic represented itself as an SDVOSB.

In July 2016, a non-veteran owned concern acquired Analytic.  Analytic updated its registration in the System for Award Management to reflect this change, and notified GSA of the change in its status (i.e., that it no longer qualified as an SDVOSB).  The GSA contracting officer responded that Analytic “will still be considered” an SDVOSB for purposes of OASIS orders.

In June 2017, DHS issued a Request for Quotations, which was set aside for SDVOSBs that were OASIS SB Pool I holders.  This RFQ did not request recertification in connection with the order.  DHS ultimately awarded the order to Analytic.  One of the unsuccessful offerors filed a protest, which apparently raised concerns that Analytic misrepresented its socioeconomic status.  GAO subsequently requested SBA’s opinion on GAO’s jurisdiction over this allegation and SBA, in turn, asked GAO to dismiss the allegation.  Thereafter, SBA initiated its own status protest of Analytic in November 2017, arguing that Analytic was no longer an SDVOSB and, thus, not eligible for orders set aside for SDVOSBs following the recertification: “There is no authority permitting a concern that loses [SDVOSB] status after a merger or acquisition to continue to receive [SDVOSB] set-aside orders.”

The SBA Director of Government Contracting (D/GC) agreed and determined that Analytic was not an eligible SDVOSB for the set-aside task order.

OHA Rejected SBA’s Reading of its Regulation in Lieu of a Plain Reading of the Rule

“Appellant maintains the provisions under § 125.18(e)(1)(i-iii) have the limited effect of preventing the procuring agency from counting options and orders issued to unqualified concerns toward its socioeconomic procurement goals. (Id., at 6.) In Appellant’s view, these are not exceptions to the general rule that a concern retains its SDVO SBC status for the life of the contract. (Id.) These provisions come immediately after another rule related to counting as stated in the regulation (i.e., “Where a concern later fails to qualify as an SDVO SBC, the procuring agency may exercise options and still count the award as an award to an SDVO SBC.”) and, therefore, are exceptions to that rule. (Id.) Appellant stresses, the remedy provided in the three exceptions is that “the agency can no longer count the options or orders issued pursuant to the contract, from that point forward, towards it SDVO [SBC] goals,” not that the agency can no longer issue orders. (Id., at 7.)”

Analytic appealed to OHA, arguing that the exceptions under § 125.18(e)(1)(i)-(ii) did not impact the general rule that a concern retains its SDVOSB status for the life of the contract.  According to Analytic, the exceptions only applied to the portion of the rule related to an agency’s ability to count spend against its SDVOSB goal since the exceptions immediately follow that rule.  Analytic argued that there was nothing in the text of the rule suggesting that a recertification as result of an acquisition will render a contractor ineligible to compete for new orders.

SBA disagreed with Analytic’s interpretation of the impact of the exceptions.  According to SBA, the exceptions (e.g., the occurrence of a merger or acquisition) not only impacted an agency’s ability to count spend towards its goals, but also were an exception to the general rule that a concern retains its status for the life of the contract.  Under its interpretation, SBA noted that a contracting officer retains discretion to award other task orders to the concern for which it is eligible (i.e., openly competed, small business set asides where the concern recertifies as small) instead of terminating the contract.  In other words, SBA pointed out that a contractor is not necessarily precluded from winning future task orders, but instead, the preclusion is limited to orders for a particular socioeconomic category for which the concern has already recertified as ineligible.

“SBA disputes Appellant and DHS’ construction of the recertification rule following “however,” arguing the proper construction applies the exceptions following “however” to the entire provision, rather than to solely counting toward procurement goals. SBA argues that counting and consideration are linked. If one of the exceptions following “however” applies, a concern is not considered an SDVO SBC at task order award and a procuring agency cannot claim credit for a task order award to the concern. (Id., at 8.)”

SBA also recognized that its interpretation of “however” in the SDVOSB recertification requirement would impact the requirement across the different programs since “the word ‘however’ appears in the same place in all of its recertification rules, including the small business set aside program.”  (Citing 13 C.F.R. §§ 121.404(g), 121.704(b), 126.601(h), 127.503(h).)

On January 29, 2018, OHA vacated the determination that Analytic did not qualify as an SDVOSB.  In doing so, OHA explained that SBA’s recertification rules state that, if a contractor no longer qualifies as small as a result of a merger or acquisition, the agency cannot count any options or orders made pursuant to the contract moving forward.  An agency can, however, still award those options and orders to the contractor as a set-aside because the regulations do not explicitly preclude it from doing so.

According to OHA, the plain language of the regulation dictated this conclusion—the exceptions for novations, mergers, acquisitions only related to the part of the rule discussing an agency’s ability to count spend against its goals and not to the general rule about when size is determined:

The regulation specifically contemplates that this retention of eligibility extends to Multiple Award Contracts, such as the OASIS SB Pool I contract at issue here. The only exception to this general rule occurs if the contracting officer requests recertification in connection with a specific order. See 13 C.F.R. § 125.18(e)(1). This exception is articulated immediately following the regulation’s statement of the general rule, and there are no other exceptions enumerated at this point in the regulation.

….

The regulation then contains an intervening sentence dictating that when a concern no longer qualifies as an SDVO SBC, a procuring agency may exercise options and still count the award as an award to an SDVO SBC toward meeting the agency’s socioeconomic contracting goals. See id. The regulation plainly contemplates the award of an option or order to a subsequently-unqualified concern, and nonetheless permits the procuring agency to count the option or order toward its socioeconomic goals so long as the concern satisfies the general rule. The regulation then states that “However, the following exceptions apply” and discusses exceptions for novation, merger and negative status determination. See 13 C.F.R. § 125.18(e)(1)(i-iii). For each of these exceptions, the remedy articulated in the regulation is that “the agency can no longer count the options or orders issued pursuant to the contract, from that point forward, toward its SDVO [SBC] goals.” Id.

Thus, OHA found SBA’s interpretation of the recertification rule “flatly contradict[ed] the plain language of § 125.18(e)” as well as “SBA’s application of the similar recertification rule for size status.”  OHA also pointed out that SBA’s intent when promulgating the regulation was “specifically to afford the contracting officer discretion in exercising options and issuing orders to a subsequently-unqualified concern pursuant to an on-going procurement.”  See 78 Fed. Reg. 61114, 61126 (Oct. 2, 2013) (stating “SBA believes that it would be a decision of the contracting agency as to whether and how a business would move to the non-set-aside portion of a multiple award contract if it did not initially submit an offer for the non-set-aside portion”).

SBA’s Revised the Recertification Requirements Seemingly in Response to OHA’s Decision

The SBA’s technical correction requires that the SDVOSB certification (copied in full above) be revised as follows:

Amend § 125.18 by revising the last sentence of paragraph (e)(1) to read as follows:
§ 125.18 What requirements must an SDVO SBC meet to submit an offer on a contract? * * * * *
(e) * * *
(1) * * * However, the following exceptions apply to this paragraph (e)(1):

Less than two months after OHA issued its decision in Analytic, SBA issued the aforementioned “technical correction” to clarify the recertification requirements for each of the socioeconomic programs so that the referenced exceptions would “be applied to the entirety of the preceding paragraph.”  SBA added just four words to each of the recertification requirements, namely that the exception applies to the entirety of the referenced paragraph.

The Impact of the Addition of the Four Words to the Recertification Requirements

The key issue in Analytic was whether the exceptions (regarding novation, acquisition, mergers) applied to both the rule on size/eligibility and on counting in the preceding paragraph or to merely the rule on how the agency can count spend against its goals (which is contained in the sentence immediately preceding the introduction to the exceptions).  In light of the extensive briefing by the parties on how the exceptions should be read and OHA’s rejection of SBA’s reading, it is difficult to read SBA’s “technical corretion” as anything other than a response to OHA clarifying that the exception applies to the entire preceding paragraph as opposed to merely the last sentence (which was OHA’s reading).

Read in this light, should a company recertify as other than small (or that it no longer qualifies for a certain socioeconomic status) following a novation, merger, acquisition or other event, it will be ineligible to compete for orders set-aside under its former size or status.

Questions and Concerns Raised by SBA’s “Technical Correction”

First, SBA’s “technical correction” lacks clarity both as to the reason why SBA issued it and the intended result.  Notwithstanding that it is difficult to read SBA’s revision to the recertification requirements as anything other than a response to OHA (even in light of the lack of any reference to the Analytic case), the revisions are not a model of clarity.  Stated otherwise, SBA could have revised the regulations to expressly prohibit contractors from competing for set-aside task orders for a size or particular socioeconomic category for which the concern has already recertified as ineligible.  Instead, SBA seemingly obscured why it published this “technical correction”—noting only that “[i]t has been brought to SBA’s attention that as drafted, it is not clear which sentence or clause the final sentence is referencing”—as well as its impact.

Second, SBA has not engaged in the expected notice and comment rulemaking.  Indeed, in its decision, OHA twice stressed that it would not allow SBA to revise its regulations by adjudication because such a change to SBA’s regulatory scheme should be subject to “notice and comment rulemaking.”  But, rather than issue a proposed rule for comment, SBA revised the recertification requirements via what it called a “direct final rule,” which would become effective May 25, 2018 assuming SBA received no “significant adverse comment” on or before April 25, 2018.  It would not be surprising to see a challenge to the method by which SBA enacted this change.

Finally, precisely what this “technical correction” means for previously awarded contracts is unclear.  Contractors should expect that recertification provisions, as revised, will apply to new solicitations for contracts issued on or after May 25, 2018.  But, what about task/delivery order solicitations issued after that date under already-awarded multiple award contracts?  SBA states in the rule that the “action does not have retroactive or preemptive effect,” but SBA also deemed this aspect of the rule to be merely a “technical clarification” that aligns the paragraph with SBA’s intent and was “not intended to make any substantive change to the paragraphs.”  This question will linger until we better understand how contracting officers and the SBA will implement the rule come May 25, 2018.

On March 22, 2018, the Department of Defense (DoD), Office of the Under Secretary of Defense issued a Class Deviation letter to the heads of all Department of Defense agencies requiring, effective immediately, that every DoD agency ensure that its contracting officers implement the recommendations for enhanced post-award debriefings set forth in Section 818 of the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).

The direction makes clear that DoD agencies are to provide unsuccessful offerors who are given a debriefing in accordance with FAR 15.506(d) the opportunity to “submit additional questions related to the debriefing within two business days after receiving the debriefing.”  The agency will then be required to “respond in writing to the additional questions submitted by an unsuccessful offeror within five business days after receipt of the questions” and must hold the debriefing open until it “delivers its written responses to the unsuccessful offeror.”

Continue Reading DoD Implements New Enhanced Debriefing Procedures from the 2018 NDAA

In this second part of our blog series about the July 25, 2016 SBA final rule implementing numerous changes to multiple SBA regulations and establishing a new small business Mentor-Protégé Program (SB MPP), we address how such implementation impacts the parallel 8(a) Business Development mentor-protégé program (8(a) MPP).  As the final rule points out, the 8(a) MPP will remain intact; however, the SBA has made several changes to the regulations governing that program, which largely represent the SBA’s efforts to harmonize the two programs.  The paragraphs below discuss some of these changes, including those impacting the requirements for entry, ongoing reviews and terminations, and reporting obligations.

Requirements for Entry into the 8(a) MPP

With the creation of the SB MPP, companies qualifying as an 8(a) have the option to participate in either the 8(a) or the SB MPP. Any current or future participant in the 8(a) MPP should be aware of the final rules’ numerous changes to this program, as discussed below. Continue Reading Living in Harmony: Notable Changes to Synchronize the 8(a) and Small Business Mentor-Protégé Programs

On July 25, 2016, the SBA published its final rule establishing a government-wide mentor-protégé program for the benefit of all small businesses as protégés.  This widely-anticipated rule, implementing provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 and the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, provides increased opportunity for small and large businesses to partner with one another.  Effective August 24, 2016, this new program is expected to unleash a flood of new mentor-protégé agreements (MPAs) as well as joint ventures eligible to compete on set-aside procurements, and it could likely result in an increase in the number of set-aside procurements.

Below we discuss the benefits from participating in this program, the requirements for the mentor-protégé agreement (“MPA”), the eligibility criteria for mentors and protégés, and the requirements for joint ventures established pursuant to the MPAs. Given the numerous benefits to participating in this program, including the opportunity to joint venture, the SBA has layered into this final rule the requirement for numerous express certifications of compliance and severe consequences for violation of the SBA’s regulations, MPAs, and/or joint venture agreements.  A separate blog post will address the changes that the SBA is implementing in the final rule to the SBA’s current regulations governing the 8(a) business development (BD) program.

Continue Reading SBA Opens the Floodgates: The Mentor-Protégé Program Expands to All Small Businesses

In this part of our ongoing series (see Part I, Part II and Part III) on the Small Business Government Contracting and National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 Amendments implementing the National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 (FY2013 NDAA) Amendments, we address the new recertification requirement that is triggered following the merger, sale, or acquisition of a firm that has submitted an offer as a small business concern (SBC).

A concern that represents itself as a small business and qualifies as small at the time of proposal submission is considered to be a small business throughout the life of that contract.  This even applies for Multiple Award Contracts—the SBC is considered small for each order issued against the contract with the same NAICS code and size standard (unless a contracting officer chooses to request a new size certification in connection with a particular order).  In other words, even where a concern grows to be other than small, the procuring agency may exercise options and still count the award as an award to a SBC, unless a recertification requirement has been triggered.

Given the great boon that comes to a firm upon award of a contract where it has qualified as a SBC, the SBA has long sought to set the right balance for what should happen when a small business is involved in a merger, sale, or acquisition. The concern is that if a SBC could submit a proposal with pricing, certify that it is small, and actually qualify on that date of proposal submission as small, should that small business be able to sell itself following proposal submission or contract award to a large business and allow the large business to benefit for up to five years of contract performance as a “small business”?  The SBA’s answer to that is no.  The SBA’s regulations as currently drafted require recertification in certain circumstances following a merger, sale, or acquisition but only once award has already been made.  In the final rule, SBA imposes new recertification requirements aimed at changes that occur within the window between proposal submission and contract award.

Continue Reading The SBA Final Rule Implementing the FY2013 NDAA Part IV: New Recertification Requirement Following Mergers & Acquisitions

The Government Contracts Group, along with our colleagues from the Corporate, White Collar, Litigation, and Labor & Employment Groups along with several guest speakers, presented on a broad range of current issues impacting government contractors during our annual OOPS and West Coast OOPS.  Our practitioners covered hot topics such as the new labor and employment reporting and disclosure requirements, agency assessments of supply chain, and cyber security.  We also provided guidance on how to navigate traditionally challenging areas for contractors, such as protection of intellectual property and data rights, classified contracting, and cost accounting.  All of the presentations can be found using the links below.

Continue Reading Crowell & Moring Held Its Annual OOPS Conference

As we have previously addressed, the Small Business Administration’s (SBA) final rule, Small Business Government Contracting and National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 Amendments, has implemented numerous changes to small business contracting contained in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 (FY2013 NDAA).  Below we discuss an important change to one affiliation test as well as newly introduced exclusions from affiliation.  On the whole, these changes make it easier for small businesses to work together without risking a finding of affiliation.

Affiliation is a central component of SBA’s regulations: in determining a concern’s size, SBA counts the receipts, employees, or other measure of size of the concern whose size is at issue and all of its affiliates (domestic and foreign).  In other words, these tests and (and exemptions or exclusions) affect whether SBA finds a concern to be small or other than small based on its relationships with other concerns.

Continue Reading The SBA Final Rule Implementing the FY2013 NDAA Part III: What You Need to Know About Affiliation and Joint Ventures

The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) final rule, Small Business Government Contracting and National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 Amendments, implements changes regarding small business subcontracting plans contained in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 (FY2013 NDAA).  We discuss the key changes below.  This rule becomes effective June 30, 2016, but as some of the changes impact the proposal process which can involve planning and team selection months in advance of proposal submission, contractors need to focus on the new requirements now.

Continue Reading The SBA Final Rule Implementing the FY2013 NDAA Part II: The Changes to Small Business Subcontracting Plans Have Immediate Impacts on Small and Large Businesses

The goal of the limitation on subcontracting requirement is to ensure that a certain amount of work is performed by a small business concern (SBC) when it qualifies for a small business program set-aside or sole source procurement due to its socioeconomic program status. SBA’s final rule, Small Business Government Contracting and National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 Amendments, implements numerous changes to this requirement contained in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2013 (FY2013 NDAA).  This rule becomes effective June 30, 2016. However, changes to the parallel FAR requirements are still needed for regulatory consistency and implementation.

Continue Reading The SBA Final Rule Implementing the FY2013 NDAA Part I: SBA Overhauls the Method for Calculating Compliance with the Limitation on Subcontracting Requirement

The Government Contracts Group is getting excited to kick off the 2016 OOPS Seminar, titled, “Government Contractors Under the Magnifying Glass.” This year’s event will be held on May 25-26 at the Washington, D.C. Renaissance Hotel. For those on the west coast, we will also have a special one-day session in Los Angeles at the Marina del Rey Marriott on May 18.

Today we check in with partner Amy Laderberg O’Sullivan to hear more about what’s in store for this year.

GC Legal Forum: Amy, tell us more about OOPS and how it got started?

Amy: OOPS has been a longstanding event within Crowell & Moring’s Government Contracts Group, and it has a really impressive history – this is the 32nd year. It began as an idea of hosting a seminar for clients just around the time that the “war on fraud” was beginning to take off. The thought was to show clients our capabilities and give them the practical advice to deal with this new and changing environment, and to make sure they knew all of the recent developments. One of our founding partners, Took Crowell, came up with the OOPS name as a bit of tongue in cheek humor: an ounce of prevention, with the real focus on fraud, would provide the informational perspective and help clients avoid running into problems.

Continue Reading Sneak Peek: Ramping up for OOPS with Partner Amy Laderberg O’Sullivan